This chapter first of all introduces the epistemology and methodology of this study, followed by the research approach: a combination of quantitative research and qualitative research. Then it shows the research tools of this study: a semi-structured interview and questionnaire, as well as the processes and methods of collecting data and information. The data processing method is presented subsequently. Finally, it explains how to solve the related ethical issues in the research process.
Epistemology and methodology 認識論和方法論
Epistemology is the philosophical doctrine which discusses the nature, structure of human understanding, the relationship between understanding and objective reality, the process and laws of occurrence and development of understanding (Carter & Little, 2007). Epistemology can usually be divided into three types: constructivism, objectivism and subjectivism (Carter & Little, 2007). This study was implemented based on objectivism and constructivism. Objectivism believes that everything has its truth, meaning, they exist as a significant entity, as well as independent consciousness (Carter & Little, 2007). Thus, based on careful and scientific investigation, objective truth and meaning can be acquired. With positivist methodology, the author developed a research plan, it was through questionnaires to collect data, made use of SPSS 20.0 in statistical and analytical process towards the collected data to understand whether the high employee turnover rate was existing in Chinese high-star hotels and the reasons for the high turnover rate.
Constructivist epistemology emphasizes that fact is constructed by people and influenced by the environment, it is unlike natural phenomenon that social phenomenon is unrepeatable (Carter & Little, 2007). Constructivist methodology holds that different people have their own understanding about the same question, which requires researchers to interpret a problem from the perspective of being researched to understand research objects and context. The author upholds the methodology of interpretivism to collect data through semi-structured interviews, from the perspective of corporate management to understand the reasons for high staff turnover rate in the specific backgrounds of Chinese high-star hotels in Beijing.
Research approach 研究方法
Quantitative and qualitative research methods were combined in this study (Creswell, 2003). Quantitative research aims to study the quantity of research objects (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2007). Quantitative research methods are based on methodology of positivism, they are mainly through gathering quantified information, processing and analysis of the data to get meaningful conclusions (Bryman & Bell, 2006). Quantitative research is more likely to resolve problems of “what is it”, this study was through quantitative research to understand whether it is the phenomenon of high staff turnover rate that exists in high-star hotels in Beijing, China.
Qualitative research is the study of the quality of objects (Bryman & Bell, 2006). Qualitative research methods are on the basis of methodology of interpretivism. It takes generally recognized axioms, a set of deductive logic and a lot of historical facts as the basis of analysis to descript and explain the things studied (Saunders, Lewis & Thornhill, 2007). Qualitative research tends to solve the problem of “why is it being that?” (Denzin & Lincoln, 2000), this thesis was through qualitative research to understand the reasons for why there is high staff turnover rate in high-star hotels in Beijing.
Quantitative research and qualitative research have their own advantages and disadvantages. Quantitative research often design large scale of samples, the conclusions drawn are more representative, but it is not con